European expansion 15th and 16th centuries

Their very existence on a landmass separated from the Eurasian-African landmass by a vast ocean raised questions about the re-population of the world after the biblical flood by the inhabitants of the Ark, as described in Genesis.

Not only trade but also the production of goods increased as a result of new ways of organizing production. It is probable that Pytheas, having coasted the shores of the Bay of Biscaycrossed from the island of Ouessant Ushantoff the French coast of Brittanyto Cornwall in southwestern Englandperhaps seeking tin.

The development of historical sociology was one of the most enduring intellectual consequences of Europe's encounter with "savage" societies. The adoption of a more neutral term does not, however, alter the fact that a process of European penetration into regions of the world previously unknown to Europeans did occur, and through this process Europeans "discovered" for themselves new species and ecosystems, and new peoples and societies.

At the same time, other groups, mainly Danish, raiding, trading, and settling along the coasts of the North Seaarrived in the Mediterranean in the guise of Normans.

The first expedition departed in European sailing had been primarily close to land cabotageguided by portolan charts. No wonder that, when Europe learned of these things, it became enthralled.

He reached Peking by way of India and Malaya, then traveled by sea to Canton; he returned to Europe by way of Central Asiavisiting Tibet in —the first European to do so. Statutes and Administration With the development of new forms of rule for its dominions and Crown colonies, the British Empire developed into a colonial mosaic.

The subsequent development of physical anthropology, with its obsession with the measurement, definition and classification of human races, strengthened the association between exterior appearance, moral qualities and potential for civilization in the minds of Westerners.

However, the impression of profound "otherness" persisted and was reinforced by religious and cultural differences, as well as linguistic barriers to communication.

Finding abundant resources of mature timber for building ships and housing was a critical need for all European nation-states. In Britaina more scientific and practical attitude prevailed, as exemplified by Johann Reinhold and Georg Forster's travel account Acosta also showed how orthodox Christian diffusionism could be reconciled with history by applying the theory that migration and the persistence of nomadic conditions were unfavourable to civilization.

If Christian Europe could only convert the Mongols, this would at one and the same time heavily tip the scales against Muslim and in favour of Christian power and also give political protection to Christian merchants along the silk routes to the legendary sources of wealth in China.

Such encounters brought Europeans into contact with peoples which they believed had experienced little or no external contact before. European encounters with different races of people had taken place since antiquity, as recorded by Herodotus ca. Seville stands on the River Guadalquivir, 90 kilometers inland from the coast, and was the only port authorized to trade with America.

But the Indians could improve only under the guidance of the politically and religiously superior Europeans. In Bartolomeu Dias reached the Indian Ocean by this route. As shipping between Seville and the West Indies grew, knowledge of the Caribbean islands, Central America and the northern coast of South America grew.

After 17 years, the Venetians were permitted to depart; they returned to Europe by sea. Venetian merchants distributed the goods through Europe until the rise of the Ottoman Empirethat eventually led to the fall of Constantinople inbarring Europeans from important combined-land-sea routes.

Cortez's conquest of Mexico meant not only control of natural resources, but also enslavement of the peoples of Mexico, who were required to work as agricultural laborers, builders and miners. Several European mines were exhausted, [39] the lack of bullion leading to the development of a complex banking system to manage the risks in trade the very first state bank, Banco di San Giorgiowas founded in at Genoa.

Gold artifacts and precious metals funded the expensive process of colonization, with explorers searching aggressively for precious metals. Sailing also into the ports of Bruges Flanders and England, Genoese communities were then established in Portugal, [40] who profited from their enterprise and financial expertise.

The Treaties of Tordesillas and Saragossa The first successful expeditions across the Atlantic Ocean raised the question of what to do with the archipelagos and new lands discovered by these navigators.

For five centuries, the Ottoman Turks remained the primary "other" for Christendom. Europeans of perspicacity saw the opportunities that friendship with the Mongol power might bring.

European Encounters in the Age of Expansion

He had tremendous opportunities of seeing China and appreciating its life, for he was taken into the service of the khan and was sent as an administrator to great cities, busy ports, and remote provinces, with instructions to write full reports.

The Hanseatic Leaguea confederation of merchant guilds and their towns in northern Germany along the North Sea and Baltic Sea, was instrumental in commercial development of the region. Exploring Africa Throughout the 19th century, European powers sent out explorers, scientific expeditions and military forces to establish their presence as colonial powers.

Herodotus tells of five young adventurers of the tribe of the Nasamones living on the desert edge of Cyrenaica in North Africawho journeyed southwest for many months across the desert, reaching a great river flowing from west to east; this presumably was the Nigeralthough Herodotus thought it to be the Upper Nile.

The Polos then accepted an invitation to accompany a party of Tatar envoys returning to the court of Kublai Khan at Cambaluc, near Peking Beijing.

Technological advancements that were important to the Age of Exploration were the adoption of the magnetic compass and advances in ship design. InhaltsverzeichnisTable of Contents Preliminary remarks Now the Great Map of Mankind is unrolled at once; and there is no state or Gradation of barbarism, and no mode of refinement which we have not at the same instant under our View.

In the Iberian Peninsula the impetus of the counteroffensive against the Moors carried the Portuguese to probe the West African coastline and the Spanish to attempt the expulsion of Islam from the western Mediterranean. Indigenous peoples were enslaved and set to work producing commodities for export to the Old World.

Giovanni da Montecorvinoa Franciscan friar from Italy, became archbishop of Peking and lived in China from to The perceived "savagery" and "half-civilized" empires which the Europeans encountered in the Americas invited them to conquer these societies and implant new political, economic and legal systems there, as well as new languages and religions.Europe's colonial expansion, European countries began exploring and seeking to dominate the rest of the world during the 15th and 16th centuries, thanks to their ability to control sea routes and to the discovery of the American continent.

Timeline of European exploration

European exploration, exploration of regions of Earth for scientific, commercial, religious, military, and other purposes by Europeans, beginning about the 4th century bce.

The motives that spur human beings to examine their environment are many. By the 15th and 16th centuries, European resources were depleting. Each nation-state looked aggressively for new land, and explorers discovering new terrain took possession in the name of the sponsoring nation.

Motives for European Expansion 15th and 16th century essaysEuropeans had many reasons to risk their live in a really long voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. Many new technological advancements such as the cannons, new ships, magnetic compass and the astrolabe-.

European exploration

European expansion in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries were led by the three main motives of God, glory, and gold. Books such as "Travels of John Mandeville" and "Travels" by Marco Polo inspired explorers in the centuries to come. European Encounters in the Age of Expansion.

The first wave of expansion during the 15th and 16th centuries focused on three main areas. The encounters which European expansion set in motion processes which resulted in a world increasingly defined by transcultural and transnational phenomena.

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European expansion 15th and 16th centuries
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